After the communists took the power inafter King Mihai I was compelled to abdicate in December 30,most of the books from the royal library were spread among different cultural institutions.
The whereabouts of the second volume is unknown. Karl Bodmer happened upon the scene at precisely the right historical moment to help create the popular image of the Indian and the American West.
When Prince Maximilian zu Wied-Neuwied brought artist Karl Bodmer to America inthe West was still, for the most part, terra incognita, with little accurate information in circulation. The Indian was an established figure in American fiction by then, chiefly through the efforts of James Fenimore Cooper in novels such as The Last of the Mohicansand the classic reports of Lewis and Clark — and Stephen H.
Ruud ed. Berkhofer, Jr. Knopf,93; Brian W. But he was looking for the natives of the interior, where few explorers and fewer artists had traveled. George Catlin, the first painter to go up the Missouri inhad only begun his great work, and he, McKenney, Ephraim G. Bodmer also arrived at a time when Americans scott herman arzător de grăsimi still striving for a distinctive cultural identity that would liberate them from European domination intellectually and creatively just as surely as the Revolution of had liberated them politically.
Such recognition would come, he advised his readers, only so far as the subjects are novel, or the execution superlatively great.
Tales of frontier and Indian life. If our artists or authors, therefore, wish to earn trophies abroad, let them seize upon themes essentially American Part of the problem was the European perception of America. Buffon did not set out to condemn all the creatures and plants of the New World, but his line of reasoning had the same effect.
In his view, environment was a key factor in the development of living things. He believed that the New World was literally younger than the Old World, that it had relatively recently emerged from the Noachian waters, and that it was still possessed of humid and miasmic airs, the result of the remaining swamps, lakes, and jungles. These conditions stunted all life, including the Indians, who, Buffon believed, were neither as strong nor sexually virile as Europeans7.
Lea, Squier and Edwin H. Biddle parts 1—5Frederick W. Greenough parts 6—13J. Bowen part 14Daniel Rice and James G. It culminated in the most challenging scientific question of the day: the origin, or origins, of the different races8. Theorizing that all people sprang from a single creation and are biologically equal, he, too, reasoned that differences in cultures must be due to the natural environment — climate, habitat, means of subsistence, and diet — rather than inherent racial characteristics.
If the environment were responsible for these differences, which Blumenbach and others perceived as degenerations from original people who lived near the Caspian Sea, it followed that it must be thoroughly documented and studied intensely through observations, collections, pierdere în greutate hlm drawings.
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But the variety of races discovered by the likes of British Captain James Cook, some of whose collections were now stored in the Göttingen museum, raised serious questions about this theory. Scott herman arzător de grăsimi the primitive peoples of Africa, the South Seas, and America from this same racial stock as Europeans?
Did differences in scott herman arzător de grăsimi environment explain their diversity, or did they spring from several different creations? Not everyone agreed that Blumenbach was even on the right track.
Among the polygenists were Voltaire and Scottish philosopher Lord Henry Homes Kames, who suggested, in his Sketches of the History of Manwhat many saw as an anti-Biblical idea that racial differences could only be accounted for by separate creations.
Others doubted that environmentalism alone could explain the different races, claiming that such distinctions were innate — and that Africans and Indians were inferior to all others.
Several Americans, the Rev. Gallatin, the former Secretary of the Treasury under President Jefferson, approached the problem from the perspective of Indian languages, and Dr.
Morton, a Philadelphia Quaker, collected and studied their skulls and published the results in his widely read Crania Americana Smith and Gallatin felt that all men were of one species, while Morton posited, to the benefit of the relatively new practice of phrenology, that each race possessed a different but characteristic — and therefore identifiable — cranium, which, to him, suggested the possibility of separate creations.
These questions were important because the answer held not only scientific but theological and political implications as well: would this new science uphold or deny the Christian belief in the descent of all people from Adam? Would it provide evidence that people of color were inherently inferior to the white race? Would it materially inform the relationship that colonial powers have with indigenous people? Göttingen purchased a large collection of Cook materials from the London dealer George Humphrey, who acquired them directly from various members of the crew.
See Adrienne L. See p.
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See also John S. Born inthe eighth of ten children, Maximilian had been a student of natural science from his youth and had pursued the field, interrupted scott herman arzător de grăsimi by military service when he fought at Waterloothroughout his life. He adopted the Neoclassical ideal of rationalistic empiricism as the basis for the study of man but was also inspired by the protean Romantic figure of Alexander von Humboldt, another Blumenbach student, who had transformed the new field of geography with his — trip to Latin America and the resulting series of thirty publications over the next twenty-five years.
By publishing his findings, Maximilian joined other naturalists who shared their research with the scientific world by means of beautifully illustrated, documentary accounts of their expeditions.
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The great illustrated book had been the preferred method of preserving and transmitting scientific information ever since the sixteenth century, and his book found its place among the great works by Theodore De Bry, Brevis narratio eorvm qvae in Florida Americae provicia Gallis acciderunt, secunda in illam nauigatione, arde grăsime cu prânzuri Renato de Laudoniere Which region of this interesting land?
See also Pär Eliasson, Platsens blick: Vetenskapsakademien och den naturalhistoriska resan —, Idéhistorisk skrifter 29 Umeå: Inst. Maximilian also published Abbildungen zur Naturgeschichte Brasiliens Weimar: n. As he made his decision, the questions raised by his mentor, Blumenbach, were never far from his mind.
Prince Maximilian zu Wien-Neuwied, lithograph by. Having failed to create a satisfactory visual record of his Brazilian trip, Maximilian realized that he would have to employ a professional artist this time.
The rudimentary sketches that he had made in Brazil, charming as they were, had to be redrawn for publication by his art-trained brother, Carl, and scott herman arzător de grăsimi, Luise, yet were still found wanting by Humboldt, who, like Blumenbach, insisted on precise delineations of native peoples and their environment for his research.
Pictures were required for a number of reasons, but their use goes beyond what one might think of today to include the popular Enlightenment pseudo-science of physiognomy, which, as practiced by one of its most famous adherents, Johann Caspar Lavater of Zurich, held that a judicious physiognomist could 16 Maximilian to Karl Friedrich Philipp von Martius, Feb.
Where is the man, for example, who can at pleasure influence his body system? But whether one accepts any element of physiognomy is not the point; the point is that the practice required the most accurate portraits that one could acquire Ever since his trip, for example, Humboldt had called for an artist who could do justice to America. The prince probably met Karl Bodmer — Fig. The twenty-three year old artist, trained by his material uncle, an itinerant Swiss landscape painter, had settled into a career painting views along the Rhine and Moselle rivers that his older brother engraved.
It was probably there that Maximilian first saw his work and offered him the opportunity to travel to America for two years as a salaried artist. Louis in March He also recorded differences Maximilian, too, was pleased with both the character and the ability of his artist assistant And the vivid, exotic, and stunningly detailed watercolor portraits and resulting engraving of Massika and Wakusásse Fig. Louis, illustrate the success of his efforts. For the three Europeans, this was just the beginning of thirteen months of close observation, extensive note-taking, arsură de grăsimi în organism, and documentation among the Native Americans of the Great Plains.
Hunter and T. Holloway, —98II: quotations on p. See also Joan K. Unless otherwise noted, all the manuscripts cited in this essay come from this collection. Karl Bodmer in his later years,Wikimedia Commons. Maximilian and Bodmer departed St. There they switched to a keelboat for the month-long trip to Fort McKenzie, which cost Maximilian a number of his hard-won specimens. Because he had collected too many items, he did not have room for everything in his cabin and had to leave many articles on deck.
Arriving on August 9, Maximilian and Bodmer had traveled more than 3, miles by the river Remaining at Fort MacKenzie for more than a month, Bodmer sketched the portraits of the leading men of three different Blackfeet bands camped around the post, while Maximilian interviewed the sitters, took notes, and traded for and purchased artifacts to take back to Germany as a part of his collection.
The dapper Bodmer, who often carried a parasol with him as protection against the harsh western sun, gradually improved his techniques for convincing the Indians to pose for him, sometimes for a full day or more The aesthetically inclined were often fascinated with his pictures, which were so different from their own art. Aware of increasing hostilities among the Indians around the fort, they were, nonetheless, surprised to be awakened by gunshots on the morning of August They rushed to the palisade to see that a party of perhaps Assiniboins and Crees had attacked the Blackfeet camped around the fort Fig.
When the whites joined in the battle, the attackers retreated to a nearby hill to ponder their next move.
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Maximilian was fascinated: From the place where the range of hills turns to the Missouri, more and more Blackfeet continued to arrive. A truly original sight!
As the conflict drew to a close, Maximilian spotted a dead Indian with a distinctive head, which he hoped to collect for study. But by the time the Blackfeet had vented their rage on the corpses, the head was gone.
The following day, Maximilian, surprised to see that the entire Blackfoot village had moved to the fort, directed Bodmer to sketch the more than teepees around the post Fig. Under these circumstances, he soon realized that it was much too dangerous to continue his trek to the Rocky Mountains, so he had to content himself with a distant view of the first chain that he had glimpsed early in the visit One cannot help but ponder the documentary opportunity that Bodmer missed.
He was one of the only pre-Civil War artists in the West who saw an Indian battle first-hand, yet there are no sketches of it among his paintings and drawings that survive. It is a dramatic image, clearly showing the bravery as well as the atrocities of battle — women and children are among the dead as the Assiniboins and Crees fire into the Blackfeet teepees at point-blank range. They could have stayed in the more spacious quarters at Fort Union, but Maximilian, like Catlin before him, wanted to spend time with the mysterious Mandan Indians near Fort Clark more than he wanted the comfortable quarters.
These were Indians who, Catlin speculated in a popular but later discredited story, had descended from early Welshmen who, under Prince Madoc, supposedly visited America in Between Catlin and Maximilian, they quickly became perhaps the best-documented tribe on the Plains Post commander James Kipp hurridly built a two-room shack for his distinguished guests, but because there was no time to properly chink the logs, the chinking froze and fell out when the temperature went below zero in one of the coldest winters on record.
Although suffering, probably from scurvy, Maximilian made the most of his time among these fascinating people, and he and Bodmer produced an unparalleled record of their culture, language, and customs. Only Catlin, who visited during the summer ofsaw more in the form of the O-Kee-Pa ceremony Maximilian and his scott herman arzător de grăsimi finally began their return trip on April 14,after the ice had melted on the Missouri.
Thwaites ed. Infantry, Br. Reproduced in Jonathan L. Fairbanks ed. Lamar ed. Although Maximilian was clearly an Enlightenment figure, the adventuresomeness and curiosity of the Romantic is apparent at the very core of his endeavor as he and Bodmer faced dangers in pursuit of the unknown.
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Maximilian did not underplay the anticipated hardships when he recruited the elegant Bodmer to accompany him, but he probably did not emphasize the potential life-threatening dangers either: the certainty of being cut off from the city centers, much less Europe, for months at a time; the possibility of sickness far from even the most primitive medical care.
And, of course, the Indians themselves sometimes proved to be a danger. As the party proceeded up the river on the keelboat Flora to Fort McKenzie, they encountered a huge camp of Gros Ventres.
Some Indians swam to the boat, while others waited on the shore. The keelboat was so slow that it could not escape them, so the captain invited the chiefs on board to smoke. Later, after witnessing a group of Assiniboins and Crees attacking a camp of Blackfeet that had settled around Fort McKenzie, Maximilian concluded that they could go no farther and stopped short of his goal — the Rocky Mountains.
He and Bodmer might easily have 31 Thwaites ed. After more than two weeks, he was finally rescued by a group of friendly Ottoes The starkness of the Mauvaises Terres the badlands apparently depressed Maximilian so much that he had a difficult time working on the book when he returned home.
Fresh scaffoldings denoted recent deaths among the Indians, while the living were reduced to dragging dead dogs by a strap through the woods, apparently as bait to catch wolves or foxes.
In addition to being meticulous, however, these portraits also captured the individualism, the humanity of the Indians — and, one might argue, the character of the animals, too, as Lavater explained — in such a way that they could be easily recognized.
Like other Romantic artists, he saw classical structures in nature, and depicted them in engravings such as The White Castles on the Upper Missouri. Maximilian had seen the beginnings of the Rockies, but had to turn back because of the threat of hostilities Maximilian had begun work on the results of his Brazilian trip immediately upon his return, but distilling his American expedition took more time.
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Whether he had not fully recovered from his near-fatal bout with scurvy at Fort Clark, or the rigors of the lengthy trip upon his fifty-one year old body, or had 33 Thwaites ed. Lavater also believed that physiognomy would also reveal the character of animals. See Lavater, Essays on Physiognomy, which includes engravings of animals as well as humans to illustrate his discussion. Ewers, et al. There, where nature is so infinitely rich and grand, I heard, from the lofty, thick, primeval forests on the banks of the rivers, the varied voices of the parrots, the macaws, and many other birds, as well as of the monkeys, and other creatures; while here, the silence of the bare, dead, lonely wilderness is but seldom interrupted by the howling of the wolves, the bellowing of the buffaloes, or the screaming of the crows… These plains, which are scott herman arzător de grăsimi in summer, and frozen in winter, have certainly much resemblance, in many of their features, with the African deserts He was further discouraged when he learned that in most of his massive natural history and ethnographic collections had been lost when the steamer Assiniboine had exploded and sank on a trip down the Missouri.
For example, several of the engraved landscapes are more studied and precise than the original drawings or watercolors, as in Fort Pierre on the Missouri Fig. Near Fort Clark Fig.